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Educational policies in India

Since Independence 1947 onwards, the Indian government has sponsored a variety of programs to address the problem of illiteracy in India. The first education minister of India Maulana Abul Kalam Azad envisioned strong central government control over education throughout the country with a uniform educational system. In the year (1948-49) Union Government established the University Education Commission, the Secondary Education Commission (1952-53), University Grants Commission and the Kothari Commission (1964-66) to develop proposals to modernize India’s education system. The resolution on educational policies was adopted by the government of Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first Prime Minister. The Nehru Government-sponsored development of high-quality scientific-educational institutions such as the Indian Institute of Technology.

Then in the year, 1961 Union Government formed the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) as an autonomous body to advise both union and state government on formulating and implementing educational policies. In 1968 first national policy on education (NPE) was announced by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, which was restructuring and equalization of educational opportunities to achieve national integration and greater cultural and economic development. The policy ensured compulsory education for children up to the age of 14yrs. In 1986 then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi introduced a new policy in NPE with special attention on educational opportunities for women and people belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. This policy also expanded the Open University system with the establishment Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), a rural university that promoted development from all the levels.

In the year 2005 Prime Minister Man Mohan Singh adopted a new policy that brought the common entrance examination on all India basis for admission into professional and technical programs throughout the country. To get admission into engineering and architecture or planning courses, the government of India vides resolution dated 18th October 2001 has laid three exam scheme JEE and AIEEE at the national level and state level. State Level Engineering Entrance Examination for state level with an option to join AIEEE. This reduces physical, mental and financial stress on the students and parents. The new changes in NPE 2016 address gender discrimination, the creation of educational tribunals and a common curriculum for Science, Mathematics, and English.

The educational policy is continuously restructured according to the demands of the current era. These changes have promoted development in education in India benefitting the students of all streams without the discrimination of caste, social status, location, gender, finance, etc. As is rightly said by a great man that “good is taken from wherever it is found, for knowledge is the aim of education and not dogmatic clinging to unsound conservatism”.


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